History of the Academy

On the 22nd of June 1735, King III. Charles sent a document to the imperial commissioner of Selmecbanya (Schemnitz, today Banska Stiavnica in Slovakia) that controlled the functions of a school for mining officers (Berg-Schola). In this he ordered Samuel Mikoviny to train 8 expectants (students). During the 2 year training the expectants studied mining-law, mine exploitation, mine-surveying, ore-dressing, assaying and metallurgy.

In 1762, Peithner suggested the Imperial Board that theoretical mining and metallurgy should be taught at a university already existing, preferably in Prague. Despite that, Queen Mary Theresa ordered the foundation of the institution at Selmecbanya. The reasons were the ideal circumstances for practical training, and that in Prague „there would be too many ways of entertainment”.
According to the decree of the 22nd October 1762, only those students could participate in practical training, who proved on an examination that they mastered the sufficient theoretical knowledge.
On the 13th June 1763 Nikolaus Jacquin became the „professor of mineralogy and chemistry”. He started his lectures on the 1st September 1764, after equipping a laboratory and creating a collection of minerals.
On the 13th August 1765 Nicolaus Poda from Graz was ordered to become the professor of the second department (mathematics-mechanics-machinery).
On the 3rd April 1770, education at the institution called Academy (Academia Montaistica or Bergwesens Academie, Bergakademie) was reorganized to a 3-year course. The professor of metallurgy and chemistry was Giovanni Scopoli, and the third professor (of mining) became Delius Christof Traugott. The practicants studying here had to take examinations quarterly. The professors were obliged to write the textbooks themselves. The successor of Delius was J. T. Peithner (1772-1777).

In 1794, when Fourcroy, an internationally famous chemist of his time, recommended the French National Assembly the foundation of a „technical university” (it became the Ecole Plytechnique), he pointed to the practical training method of the Selmec Academy as the example.

1795. The Academy officially becomes an educational institution.

In 1839 the department of descriptive geometrics and architecture, in 1840 the department of mineralogy-geology-paleontology was created. In 1846 the Institute of Forestry, established in 1808, became a part of the Academy. The name of the institution consisting 6 faculties changed to Academy for Mining and Forestry. (Berg- und Forstakademie). The term of training was changed to 4 years, graduates received a degree in mining (metallurgy) or forestry.

In 1848 most of the students supported the revolution and the war for independence, the Academy came under the authority of the Hungarian Government. Because of the planned introduction of Hungarian as the language of education, most Austrian and Bohemian students left Selmec. For them similar schools were created in Pribram of Bohemia and Leoben of Austria. Education took a pause until 1850.

In 1867 after the Settlement, the Academy for Mining and Forestry came under the authority of the Hungarian State.
Between 1868-72 the language of teaching mining and metallurgy was changed to Hungarian. Because education before was only in German, this was the birth of the Hungarian technical language as well. Forestry was taught in Hungarian after 1866.
In 1872 mining training was separated to 4 fields, mining, ferrous metallurgy, non-ferrous metallurgy and machinery construction. With this training was shortened to 3 years.
In 1873, independent from the Selmec Office of Treasury, a director was elected by the Academic Council to head the institution: Ede Poschl, professor of descriptive geometrics.

In 1876 state exams were introduced, until then graduates only needed to pass an absolutorium. Successful graduates received the title of certified miner etc. From 1895, the title changed certified mining engineer, certified metallurgical engineer (ferrous or non-ferrous).
In 1892, the Association for Mining and Metallurgical Literature founded in 1887 transformed into the Hungarian National Mining and Metallurgical Association (Orszagos Magyar Banyaszati es Kohaszati Egyesulet, OMBKE). Its leaders were chosen from the professors of the Academy.
1904. Another year of changes at the Academy: its name changes to College of Mining and Forestry. There are 4 majors left: mining engineering, ferric metallurgy, non-ferric metallurgy, and forest engineering. The head of the college is the rector, elected by the College Council. The first rector is Laszlo Fodor, professor of descriptive geometry. The academic period is raised to 4 years, the number of faculties from 16 to 20. The weight of natural science subjects becomes more significant, they are being taught twice as much as before. Students are not required to pay for their tuition. In 1913 580 students were studying at the College.
In 1914, the number of students fell below 100 because of the war, most of the educators got enlisted as well.

On the 6th December 1918, the Ministry of Finance orders the College to move from Selmecbanya.
On the 20th February 1919, Sopron was appointed as the new place for the College. Education began on the 28th April, after a break of 5 month.
In 1922, its name changed to College of Mining and Forestry Engineering. There were 3 majors: mining engineering, metallurgical engineering and forestry engineering. In 1931 the College was given the right to confer the honorary lecturers and doctors degree.
In 1934, due to the national educational reform, the College became the mining-, metallurgical- and forestry engineering department of the Palatine Joseph Hungarian Royal University of Technical and Economical Sciences. The academic period was changed to 9 semesters, ferric and non-ferric metallurgical training was combined into one.
On 19th August 1949, the Technical University for Heavy Industry (Nehezipari Muszaki Egyetem, NME) was legally founded. Its center became the planned center of heavy industry, Miskolc. Besides mining- and metallurgical engineering, the department of mechanical engineering was added as well. The first courses started on 18th September at Miskolc, with 500 students. Students of higher years finished their education at Sopron.
1950. The Faculty of Landsurveying was added to the NME in Sopron. The Branch of Forest Engineering becomes the Department of Forest Engineering of the University of Agriculture.
In 1952 all metallurgical faculties move to Miskolc.
In 1959 the faculty of Mining Engineering moved to Miskolc as well.
1962. The University of Forestry and Timber Industry is founded in Sopron with two faculties: the Faculty of Forest Engineering and the Faculty of Timber Industry Engineering.

In 1969 the Technical College of Metallurgic Industry at Dunaujvaros became Faculty of Metallurgic and Metal Industry, in 1970 the Technical College of Kazincbarcika became the Faculty of Chemical Automation of NME. With these there were already 33 university and 15 college faculties.
1980 was the beginning of a new era; from this year not only technical specialists are being trained at the alma mater. On 4th July the Legal Institution of NME was founded, this became the fourth department in 1983.

In 1987 the Economical Institution began its work (from 1990 it was called the Faculty of Economic Science).
In 1990, the name changes to University of Miskolc.
In 1992, the Institution of Human Studies was founded (from 1997 it was called Institution of Human Sciences)
In 1997 the Institution of Music, in 1998 the Medical Institution was added to the university.
In the September of 1998, ME had about 850 educators, around 15 thousand (ca. 10 thousand full time) students. The number of faculties reached 150.